# (Quasi-)Monte Carlo methods¶

A typical way to obtain the statistical metrics mentioned above is to use (quasi-)Monte Carlo methods. We give a brief overview of these methods here, for more comprehensive reviews see Lemieux, (2009); Rubinstein and Kroese (2016).

The general idea behind the standard Monte Carlo method is quite simple. A set of parameters is pseudo-randomly drawn from the joint multivariate probability density function \(\rho_{\boldsymbol{Q}}\) of the parameters. The model is then evaluated for the sampled parameter set. This process is repeated thousand of times, and statistical metrics such as the mean and variance are computed for the resulting series of model outputs. The problem with the standard Monte Carlo method is that a very high number of model evaluations is required to get reliable statistics. If the model is computationally expensive, the Monte Carlo method may require insurmountable computer power.

Quasi-Monte Carlo methods improve upon the standard Monte Carlo method by using variance-reduction techniques to reduce the number of model evaluations needed. These methods are based on increasing the coverage of the sampled parameter space by distributing the samples more evenly. Fewer samples are then required to get a given accuracy. Instead of pseudo-randomly selecting parameters from \(\rho_{\boldsymbol{Q}}\), the samples are selected using a low-discrepancy sequence such as the Hammersley sequence (Hammersley, 1960). Quasi-Monte Carlo methods are faster than the Monte Carlo method, as long as the number of uncertain parameters is sufficiently small (Lemieux, 2009).

Uncertainpy allows quasi-Monte Carlo methods to be used to compute the statistical metrics. When this option is chosen, the metrics are computed as follows. With \(N\) model evaluations, which gives the results \(\boldsymbol{Y} = [Y_1, Y_2, \ldots, Y_N]\), the mean is given by

and the variance by

Prediction intervals are found by sorting the model evaluations \(\boldsymbol{Y}\) in an increasing order, and then find the \((100\cdot x/2)\)-th and \((100\cdot (1 - x/2))\)-th percentiles. The Sobol indices can be calculated using the method in (Saltelli et al., 2010). The total number of samples \(N_t\) required by this method is: